Kia Optima Hybrid: Tire Pressure Monitoring System / TPMS Sensor Description and Operation


By detecting the pressure, temperature, acceleration, and battery condition, transmit information to ECU by a wireless RF.
Wheel location is recognized by comparing the Wheel Pulse of ECS (ABS) and acceleration values of the sensor (High Line).
Structure and features
There are four (4) sensors mounted in each wheel of the vehicle.
Frequency conversion type is FSK, and High Line is used in common.
It consists of the initial factory mode (EOL test mode), the stop and driving mode, and the automatic learning mode.
TPMS Automatic Location Learning
Wheel angular velocity of wheels are different from each other in the following cases:
Slip for each axis occurs differently.
Rotation radius (the radius of curve) for each wheel is different.
Tire wear, internal pressure, tire specifications, etc. for each tire are different.
TPMS sensor is transmitted to RF signal at only specific phase (the angle of the tire) in the learning mode.
TPMS receiver checks each tire phase (tire angle) information on receiving RF signals from the sensor.
Every time RF signals from sensor IDs 1, 2, 3, and 4 are received, the ID with the highest correlation among the phase of each collected wheel is transmitted. (In other words, each time RF signal is received, the phase of the tire is transmitted to the most constant wheel.)
TPMS sensor transmits the RF signal at intervals of 16 seconds in the learning mode.
After stopping or parking for more than 19 minutes, automatic learning function in every driving position is performed.
The sensor is converted to Parking Mode when stopped or parked for more than 15 minutes. When acceleration of over 4g (15-20km/h) is detected in Parking Mode, it is converted to First Block Mode.
Warning Lamp
Normal Mode
Whenever IGN is ON, Cluster can check TPMS Unit by CAN communication
[Normal operation]
Cluster blinks for 3 seconds, then turns OFF

[Abnormal operation]
Cluster blinks for 1 minute, then turns ON

Virgin mode
TPMS has not learned sensor IDs
[Normal operation]
Cluster blinks for 3 seconds, then turns OFF for 3 seconds (Repeat)
Low pressure lamp
TPMS unit detects low pressure
[Normal operation]
There is no low pressure tire
[Low pressure lamp on operation]
There is low pressure tire
The tire pressure is below lamp on condition

Malfunction lamp
TPMS unit detection system failure
[Normal operation]
There is no system failure
Cluster lamp for TPMS turns OFF

[Malfunction lamp on operation]
There is system failure
Cluster blinks for 1 minute, then turns ON

Precautions of replacing TPMS sensors
Receiver exchange position
: Diagnostic Equipment (TPMS exciter included) will conduct the following tasks.
Vehicles must enter the code.
Enter the VIN number.
Makes the sensor ID to enter.
IG OFF after 10 seconds.
("TPMS" to determine whether the lamp lit)
Description and Operation

Description Tread Lamp – Tire Under Inflation / Leak Warning. 1. Turn on condition • When tire pressure is below allowed threshold • When rapid leak is detected by the sensor. 2. Turn off condition ...

TPMS Sensor Repair procedures

Removal Tire Removal 1. Deflate tire & remove balance weights.     • The tire bead should be broken approx. 90° from the valve side of the wheel. The bead breaker should not be set too ...

Other information:

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Kia Optima Hybrid (TF HEV) 2016-2020 Service Manual: Instrument Cluster Components and Components Location

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